A Quick Reminder about Prepositions
A preposition needs to connect to a noun or noun phrase, which means that even if there are several words together, the whole phrase needs to be only a noun, not a clause. The examples below are noun phrases – they are several words but the whole phrase is just considered a noun or group of nouns:
A presentation about the company’s history (noun + preposition + noun)
Advertising our new product (gerund noun + adjective + noun)
The products and services that we provide (noun + noun + adjective clause)
A problem with our equipment (noun + preposition + noun)
Also, remember that if a preposition connects to a verb word, such as “pay”, “ it needs to be in a noun form, which means -ing (gerund) form:
Instead of paying with cash, you can pay by credit card.
As for cutting costs, our best option is to outsource production.
In this lesson, each expression ends with a preposition, so even if you see the word “to” at the end of the expression, it’s a preposition, so the verb needs to be in gerund form. For example, the expressions “as opposed to”, and “in addition to”, the word “to” is a preposition in the same way as “go to” or “talk to”, so this means that if you add a verb word after it, it needs to be in gerund form:
As opposed to doing……
In addition to making…..
With regard to preparing…..
Match the preposition phrases 1 - 10 with their synonym a - j. Use the example sentences to help you match them (see sentences below the list a - j):
1. When it comes to 2. As per 3. As opposed to 4. In addition to 5. In keeping with 6. Following 7. In view of 8. Vis-à-vis 9. In reference to 10. Apart from
a) After b) Instead of c) Concerning/Regarding d) Compared to e) About (transitioning to a new topic) f) Because of g) Consistent with h) In accordance with i) Beyond/More than j) Except for/Besides/Other than
1. When it comes to customer service, our hotel has the highest ratings in the industry.
2. Everyone needs to wear a mask at the office as per health and safety protocol.
3. The company decided to outsource the payroll process as opposed to doing it in-house.
4. In addition to providing full health benefits, the company is also offering extended paternity and maternity leave to parents.
5. In keeping with our brand image, we ensure that our products are made with the highest quality materials.
6. There will be a question-and-answer session following the presentation.
7. In view of increasing orders, we have hired additional staff to help us meet demand.
8. Our Latin America division is growing fast vis-à-vis our European division.
9. I’m writing in reference to your request for time off next weekend.
10. There isn’t much work left to do on the project apart from cleaning up.
1. When it comes to = About (transitioning to a new topic)
2. As per = In accordance with
3. As opposed to = Instead of
4. In addition to = More than/Beyond
5. In keeping with = Consistent with
6. Following = After
7. In view of = Because of
8. Vis-a-vis = compared to
9. In reference to = concerning/regarding
10. Apart from = Except for/Besides/Other than
Part A: Choose the correct answer:
(In reference to/Apart from/As opposed to) your complaint, we apologize for the inconvenience and we are investigating the issue.
We need to complete the project by Friday May 30th (in addition to/as opposed to/as per) the agreement.
Employees must pass a COVID test (in view of/in addition to/when it comes to) providing proof of vaccination in order to return to work.
The minutes will be sent out to all staff (vis-à-vis/in keeping with/following) the meeting.
(Apart from/When it comes to/Following) hiring staff, our company is very good at finding the best people.
We priced our product in the mid-market range (as opposed to/in reference to/as per) going upmarket and charging a higher price.
(In view of/As opposed to/In addition to) high unemployment, the government is boosting its subsidies.
Our company offers a more customized service (in view of/vis-à-vis/in addition to) our competitors.
The company had to fire him for his inappropriate behaviour (when it comes to/as opposed to/in keeping with) the company’s strict code of conduct.
(Vis-à-vis/Apart from/In view of) one minor issue with the microphone, we didn’t have any problems during the event.
Part B: Find the part in the sentence that can be replaced with one of the expressions from this lesson and then rewrite the sentence with the new language. The first one is done for you as a model to follow:
Example: I have a few questions concerning the job application on your website.
= I have a few questions in reference to the job application on your website.
Use the words below and substitute them into sentences 1 - 9:
vis-à-vis / as opposed to / as per / following / in keeping with
when it comes to / in view of / apart from / in addition to
We usually ask my parents to take care of our kids when we go out instead of hiring a babysitter.
The new President reduced taxes on small businesses to be consistent with his campaign promise.
Other than (or except for) the bugs, camping in the forest was a lot of fun!
The landlord can only increase the rent by 5% per year in accordance with the rental agreement.
Police are advising residents to lock their doors because of recent burglaries in the area.
More than taking Christmas Day off from work, I also took New Year's Day as a holiday.
Fast food restaurants have done well during the pandemic compared to traditional dine-in restaurants.
Airport security changed forever after the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
I enjoy watching Amazon Prime for the selection of movies, but about TV shows, Netflix is still the best.
Part C: Complete sentences 1 – 6 by combining a prepositional phrase and a noun phrase.
as opposed to / in addition to / in keeping with / apart from
when it comes to / in view of / vis-à-vis
allegations of harassment / innovation / receiving a 10% discount
attending meetings / the company’s tradition of promoting from within
working at the office / the previous quarter
Our sales results for this quarter were very impressive..…
….the company’s tradition of promoting from within, the company announced that their new CEO will be the former VP of Sales.
Most of our staff work at home now….
You will get an extended warranty….
…..Tesla is the leader in the car industry.
There will be an investigation into the company culture…..
……. attending meetings, I didn’t really do anything on my business trip.
In reference to (the main clause “we apologize….” is “about” the complaint)
As per (this is using “the agreement” as rules or terms that need to be followed)
In addition to (“providing proof” is one more thing that is needed)
Following (the minutes will be sent out after the meeting is finished)
When it comes to (“hiring staff” is the topic of the clause “our company is….”)
As opposed to (the choice is the mid-market instead of going upmarket)
In view of (the high unemployment is causing the government to give more subsidies)
Vis-à-vis (our services are more customized if it’s compared with our competitors)
In keeping with (firing him is consistent with the code of conduct)
Apart from (we didn’t have any problems other than this one minor issue)
We usually ask my parents to take care of our kids when we go out as opposed to hiring a babysitter.
The new President reduced taxes on small businesses in keeping with his campaign promise.
Apart from the bugs, camping in the forest was a lot of fun!
The landlord can only increase the rent by 5% per year as per the rental agreement.
Police are advising residents to lock their doors in view of recent burglaries in the area.
In addition to taking Christmas Day off from work, I also took New Year's Day as a holiday.
Fast food restaurants have done well during the pandemic vis-à-vis traditional dine-in restaurants.
Airport security changed forever following the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
I enjoy watching Amazon Prime for the selection of movies, but when it comes to TV shows, Netflix is still the best.
Our sales results for this quarter were very impressive vis-à-vis the previous quarter.
In keeping with the company’s tradition of promoting from within, the company announced that their new CEO will be the former VP of Sales.
Most of our staff work online now as opposed to working at the office
You will get an extended warranty in addition to receiving a 10% discount.
When it comes to innovation, Tesla is the leader in the car industry.
There will be an investigation into the company culture, in view of allegations of harassment
Apart from attending meetings, I didn’t really do anything on my business trip.